GS paper III : – Disaster management.
What to study?
- For Prelims: Not so important.
- For Mains: Significance of the disease, challenges ahead and measures needed to save human life.
Recently, a new virus belonging to the Coronavirus family (now named novel coronavirus 2019-nCoV) has claimed over 200 lives in China and the numbers infected have touched 10,000 confirmed cases.
- currently 6 dead, nearly 300 cases of infections reported
- 224 cases of pneumonia caused by 2019 nCoV(Nobel coronavirus) reported
- 217 cases confirmed
- 14 cases in Guangdong province
- 5 in Beijing
- 15 medical worker test positive in Wuhan
Overseas cases: 1) Japan, 2) Thailand, 3) South Korea
There are seven known strains of human corona viruses:
1) Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E)
2) Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43)
4) Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63, New Haven coronavirus)
5) Human coronavirus HKU1
6) Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV)
7) Novel coronavirus (nCoV)
MIDDLE EAST RESPIRATORY SYNDROME (MERS-CoV):
- First reported in the middle east in 2012, cause respiratory problem.
- Deadly for 3/4 out of every 10 patients that get infected.
SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME (SARS-CoV) :
- Respiratory problem, diarrhea, fatigue, short breathing, respiratory distress, kidney failure.
- Death rate can range from 0-50% of cases with older people being vulnerable.
It is ZOONOTIC VIRUS which can spread from animals to the human being (ANIMAL–> HUMAN–> HUMAN)
- CARRIER: cats, dogs, bats, flies, monkey, pigs, Human.
example: Animal flu, bird flu.
Spread when someone comes into contact with an infected person like cough, sneeze or handshake.
1) Runny nose.
4) Sore throat.
– No specific treatment
– Doctors can, symptoms by prescribing pain or fever medication.
– Symptoms usually go away on their own; room humidifier or hot shower can help.
– If infected drink plenty of fluids, get rest and sleep as much as possible.
– Wash hand after coming contact with animals.
– Meals should be cooked properly.
Reasons for ZOONATIC diseases rise:
– Changing in lifestyle.
– Virus Developing resistance to medicines.
– Allegation on drugs company they are promoting to spread these diseases.
More Inputs : – Virus has been causes of many epidemics from the past several decades/ century. These triggering panic among people
– Most viruses are dangerous some may even fatal
- MARBURG VIRUS : The deadliest virus in the world named after a small town on river Lahn. It creates
*Hemorrhagic fever virus.
*causes convulsions and bleeding of mucous membranes, Skins, and organs.
*Fatality rate 90%.
- EBOLA VIRUS:
*FIVE STRAINS NAME AFTER COUNTRIES AND REGION OF AFRICA
zaire, Sudan, Tai Forest, Bundibugyo virus, Reston.
*Zaire ebolavirus is the deadliest.
- KYSANUR FOREST VIRUS
*Discovered in the southwestern coast of India in 1995.
*difficult to determine carriers of the virus.
*causes high fever, strong headaches, muscle pain which caused bleeding.
- BIRD FLU :
*H5N1 strain has a mortality rate of 70%.
*Contracted through direct contact with poultry.
*infects those working at poultry.
- HANTA VIRUS:
*One of the deadliest viruses across the world.
*American soldiers first infected during the Korean War in 1950.
*Symptoms include lung diseases, fever.
- LASSA VIRUS
*Transmitted by rodents.
*Occurs in a specific region and can reoccur at any time in that region.
*15% rodents in western Africa carry.
- JUNIN VIRUS :
*Associated with hemorrhagic fever.
*Infected people suffer from tissues inflammation, sepsis and skin bleeding.
*Rarely detected in the initial days.